You can count to 12 on one hand by using your thumb to count the bones of each finger. This might explain the base 12 and base 60 number systems we use for telling time and measuring angles.
In 1736, a mathematician named Leonhard Euler was trying to find a way to cross every single one of the seven bridges of Königsberg exactly once. He realized that this was, in fact, impossible and based on that created a new area of mathematics called Graph Theory.
Belphegor's Prime is a prime number that is also a palindrome. It's named after the Prince of Hell for ingenious inventions because it contains two sets of 13 zeroes with 666 in the center. The palindromic prime number is 1000000000000066600000000000001.
There are prime numbers (Illegal prime) that are illegal to possess or distribute. One of the first ones, found in 2001, was used to bypass copyright protection on DVDs.
A Chinese mathematician named Yitang Zhang could not get an academic job upon graduating, having to work as an accountant and a delivery worker for a New York City restaurant. He later went on to solve a math problem that had been unsolved for 150 years and won a MacArthur Genius Grant.
The sum of all numbers on a roulette wheel is 666.
Mathematicians have jokingly proposed a standard unit of measurement for beauty called the “millihelen.” Inspired by Helen of Troy, a millihelen is defined as “the amount of beauty required to launch one ship.”
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The Dunbar's number is a theoretical upper limit of the people one can maintain stable relationships with. It is suggested between 100 and 250. So if a town's population is below the Dunbar's number, it is more likely to have harmony and peace than a larger town or city.
The sum of odd numbers starting at 1 is always a square number.
I, V, X, L, C, D, M aren't the only letters used in Roman numerals; "S" is used to represent ½ along with dots for other fractions.